Pengaruh promosi gizi di sekolah terhadap pengetahuan, sikap, dan perilaku tentang konsumsi air pada anak sekolah dasar di Kota Yogyakarta

Endri Yuliati, BJ. Istiti Kandarina, Toto Sudargo

Abstract


Latar Belakang: Air merupakan zat gizi penyusun cairan intrasel dan ekstrasel, tetapi pemenuhan kebutuhannya sering dikesampingkan. Kurang air minum berdampak negatif pada fisik dan mental. Sekolah termasuk lingkungan terdekat anak sehingga berpotensi sebagai tempat memperbaiki perilaku anak. Tujuan: Mengetahui pengaruh model promosi gizi di sekolah dalam meningkatkan pengetahuan, sikap, dan perilaku terkait konsumsi air minum anak. Metode: Penelitian kuasi eksperimen ini menggunakan rancangan pre and post with control group design yang dilaksanakan di sekolah dasar di Kota Yogyakarta. Pemilihan sekolah dilakukan dengan multistage random sampling. Setiap dua sekolah menerima salah satu bentuk promosi gizi berikut: A) pendidikan gizi dengan pembelajaran aktif dan pembiasaan (n=70) dan B) pembiasaan (n=65). Pendidikan gizi disampaikan oleh peneliti selama tiga minggu dengan frekuensi 1 kali per minggu. Pembiasaan dilakukan selama dua minggu berupa meminta anak untuk membawa minuman dari rumah dan minum bersama-sama sebelum pelajaran dimulai dan ketika akan pulang sekolah. Pengetahuan dan sikap tentang minum diukur dengan kuesioner sedangkan perilaku diukur dari volume konsumsi air minum dengan tiga hari fluid record. Data prepost dianalisis dengan uji Wilcoxon Signed Rank. Perbedaan kedua kelompok diuji dengan Mann Whitney. Hasil: Peningkatan pengetahuan hanya terjadi pada kelompok A, yaitu sebesar 1,13 (p<0,05). Untuk sikap dan perilaku terkait air minum tidak mengalami peningkatan yang bermakna setelah intervensi, yaitu berturut-turut untuk kelompok A dan B dari 1.137,74+432,32 dan 1.234,10+509,51 menjadi 1.119+404,87 dan 1.170+513,63 ml. Kesimpulan: Promosi gizi dengan metode pembelajaran aktif dan pembiasaan dapat digunakan untuk meningkatkan pengetahuan siswa, tetapi belum dapat meningkatkan sikap dan perilaku siswa terkait konsumsi air.

Keywords


promosi gizi; pengetahuan; sikap; perilaku; konsumsi air; sekolah dasar

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